Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاکستان), is a republic in South Asia, marking the region where South Asia converges with Central Asia and the Middle East. It has a 1,046 kilometer (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea in the south, and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast.
Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and is the second most populous country with a Muslim majority. Its territory was a part of the pre-partitioned British India and has a long history of settlement and civilisation including the Indus Valley Civilisation. Most of its current territory was conquered in the 1st millennium BCE by Persians and Greeks and ruled by them for a few centuries. For the rest of history the region was part of a larger Indian kingdom or under local or regional rulers. Later arrivals and conquests include those by the Arabs, Afghans, Turks, Baloch and Mongols. The territory was incorporated into the British India in the nineteenth century. Since its independence, the country has experienced both periods of significant military and economic growth, and periods of instability, with the secession of East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh).
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